Glossary

 

Blockchain: a permission less distributed database that maintains a continuously growing list of data records secured from any tampering or revision. 

DAO (distributed autonomous organization): transparent distributed autonomous organization where governance and decision making system are immutably programmed in the Blockchain. 

DAPP (decentralized application): an application, which has its backend code running on a decentralized peer-to-peer network. Contrast this with an application where the backend code is running on centralized servers. Furthermore, its frontend can be hosted on decentralized storage such as IPFS. A DAPP on the Blockchain can live and grow without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. 

Deposit insurance: insurance for the users, which is locked when a courier takes the parcel from the sender and returned when delivering the parcel to another node or to the receiver. 

Ethereum: an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract functionality. It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a value token called "ether", which can be transferred between participants and is used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. 

Hash: a hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of fixed size. A cryptographic hash function allows one to easily verify that some input data maps to a given hash value. This is used for assuring integrity of transmitted data, and is the building block for HMACs, which provide message authentication. 

Internet of Things (IoT): the network of physical devices that enable objects to be sensed and/or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure. 

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System): peer-to-peer distributed file system that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. 

Peer-to-peer (P2P): A network in which each node can act as a server for the others, allowing shared access to data without the need for a central server. 

QR code (Quick Response Code): machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached.  

Smart contract: self-executing contractual states, stored on the Blockchain, which nobody controls and therefore everyone can trust. They are computer protocols that can make traditional contractual clause unnecessary and even provide security superior to traditional contract law. Furthermore, smart contracts reduce other transaction costs associated with contracting. 

Smart stickers: adhesive sticker used to authenticate, secure, seal and trace a product. It can carry QR codes, opening detection with tamper evidence, temperature indicator…